JW Latex Consultants (and Rubber Consultants,乳胶顾问) offer solutions to your problems in Natural Rubber latex and Synthetic Rubber latex processing and the manufacturing of latex products (condoms, catheters, medical gloves, baby teats and soothers, toy balloons etc) Quick answers through e-mails are possible at reasonable cost.



[Advantages of Prevulcanization] [Air Permeability] [Applications of PV Latex] [Bacteria and Latex] [Chemical Toxicity] [Cross-Linking Density] [Biodegradability] [Black Articles] [Blooming] [Bouncing Ball] [Compression Set] [Condoms] [Copper Staining] [Creaming] [Defoamer] [FDA] [Fatty Acid Soaps] [Flame Retardant] [Flocking] [Food Packaging] [Glove Demand] [Glove Discoloration] [Glove Selection] [Guayule Latex] [History of Gloves] [Joul Effect] [Lab Equipment] [“Latex” Definition] [Natural Rubber Latex Stability] [Natural Rubber Latex Thread] [Milling Problem] [Mixing Equipment Directory] [MREPC Articles] [Nano Polymer Particles] [Nano ZnO] [Permanent Set] [Polychloroprene] [REACH] [SMG] [Storage Hardening] [Stress Relaxation] [Surfactants Directory] [Tensile Properties] [Vulcanization] [Vytex] [Yulex]


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Saturday, October 10, 2015

Plastic-Eating Worms May Offer Solution to Our Growing Garbage Problem

Polystyrene—most familiarly produced as foams, including Styrofoam—has given the world cheap, lightweight insulation and containers for taking food to go. But the material biodegrades so slowly that it can sit in a landfill for hundreds of years. A new finding points to a potential solution: Mealworms will dine on polystyrene foam when they can’t get a better meal, converting up to 48% of what they eat into carbon dioxide......CLICK HERE to read the whole article.

Thursday, October 01, 2015

Get Your Copy of - "Practical Latex Technology" Now!

"Practical Latex Technology" contains answers to more than 100 questions plus other very useful tips and ideas! 

For easy of reference, it is divided into 5 Parts:

Part 1: Vulcanisation (Vulcanization), Vulcanisation of Latex and Prevulcanised Latex
Part 2: Properties of Rubber and Latex
Part 3: Problems of Latex Processing and Finished Products
Part 4: Compounding Ingredients and Processing Aids
Part 5: Miscellaneous Subjects

Get your copy for a one-time investment of only $85.00!

NOTE: If you do not receive the book online immediately after making your payment, please contact John Woon at woonsungliang@yahoo.com.sg and john@jwlatexconsultants.com and he would ensure that the book is sent to you without undue delay.

Sunday, September 13, 2015

Heat Sensitized Natural Rubber Latex

Manufacturer: One of our suppliers suggested that we should try Emulvin W and Coagulant WS from Lanxess to make our NR latex compound more heat sensitive in order to make thicker latex dipped products. We would appreciate if you could guide us on how to proceed.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Emulvin W ia a surface active agent (i.e. surfactant) which is an aromatic polyglycol and is normally added into the latex compound to improve the colloidal stability of the latex against mechanical shear and cationic chemicals. Although it appears oily it can be easily dissolved in water. I suggest you prepare a solution of about 20% before use.

Coagulant WS is a functional organosiloxane that is frequently used as a heat sensitizerfor latex compounds. While Coagulant WS reduces the "coagulation temperature" Emulvin W increases it.

Hence when Coagulant WS is used in conjunction with Emulvin W, the "coagulation temperature" of the latex compound could be changed to suit one's dipping process and also to control the thickness of the latex gel by varying the ratio of these two additives.

The advantage of Coagulant WS is the fact that it is silicone based (although water soluble) and hence it could also act as a releasing agent.

Thursday, September 03, 2015

Training on Latex Technology.

Manufacturer: Please let me know if you do training on latex filming or general training on latex so that I can participate in near future.
Do you have any consultation fee or package system so that I can go through and work out more concerns in latex in a systematic way. Please let me know.
I look forward to hearing from you.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant):  I do conduct training on latex technology.

This can be done face-to-face or if required I can also put this into a pdf report for you. This covers the basic science and technology of natural rubber latex, latex specification and the significance of each parameter, latex stability, lab testing and many more topics.

The report would serve as a good reference guide for your work with natural rubber latex.

Tuesday, August 18, 2015

"Precure" and "Maturation" of Natural Rubber Latex Compounds

Manufacturer: We are latex dipped products manufacturers using natural rubber latex. We are confused by the terms, "Precure" and "Maturation". What do they mean in technical terms and how important are they?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Good questions. Both the terms "Precure" and "Maturation" are quite loosely used in the latex industry. Even some of the qualified latex technologists and scientists interchange one with the other to mean the same thing.

The two terms actually mean two different things. "Precure" means a certain degree of prevulcanisation or cross-links that has taken place while "Maturation" is the state of surfactants initially present in the base latex and those added through compounding and other ingredients having reached an equilibrium usually accompanied with an increase in colloidal stability.

Both precure and maturation are taking place at the same time immediately after compounding.

Both are necessary to ensure successful dipping with good colloidal stability and good gel strength with minimal or no product distortion and eventual acceptable tensile strength.

Sunday, July 26, 2015

Study of Effects of Surface Tension in Dippind Latex Process

Manufacturer: We are manufacturers of a varied range of latex dipped products. We believe we are having some wetting problems with our coagulants and latex and would like to use surface tenstion measurement for our initial work. What should we do?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): I suggest you study the effect of both the "Equilibrium Surface Tension" based on Du Nouy Ring and Wihelmy Plate methods and the "Dynamic Surface Tension" by maximum bubble pressure. (Kyowa Interface Science Co., Ltd. gives the following illustration)


Dynamin surface tension is particularly useful in understanding its effect in a dynamic system such as that experienced by you in your dipping process, where new interfaces are rapidly encountered.

Your surfactants suppliers should be able to give you more details.

Sunday, July 12, 2015

Freeze-Thaw Stability of Natural Rubber Latex Concentrates

Manufacturer: We are using centrifuged latex concentrates from Thailand and very often encountering latex stability problem during winters. Can you explain why and how we can ensure better freeze-thaw stability of the latex.
John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): If you are storing your latex just above freezing temperatures, the colloidal stability of the latex is normally still acceptable. But once the water phase of the latex is frozen at sub-zero temperatures, latex destabilization would occur with an increase in viscosity and a drop in mechanical stability even after the latex has been thawed.

The frozen of the water phase would force the latex particles to collide and adhere with each other and hence destabilization. In severe cases, this would lead to irreversible coagulation and gelation.

The good news is that freeze-thaw stabilized centrifuged latex concentrates are available from the latex producers if such requirement is specified by the buyers. The improved stability is normally done through the addition of sodium salts of certain phenolic additive and ammonium laurate soap.

Thursday, June 25, 2015

Fraunhofer Researchers Develop Natural Rubber from Dandelions

Approximately 40,000 products of everyday life contain natural rubber. It’s the material that provides extreme elasticity, tensile strength and low-temperature flexibility in products from mattresses and gloves to adhesive tape and tires. As yet, it has no artificial replacement. However, researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME were able to identify a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to the natural rubber tree: the dandelion.....CLICK HERE to read the whole article.

Sunday, June 14, 2015

Latex Stability Problem Due to Addition of Filler

Manufacturer: We are adding filler to our latex compounds to reduce cost while increasing modulus. However, every time we do this we encounter a lot of problems due to a drop  in latex stability.


John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): You did not tell me your stabilizing system and how much stabilizer you are using. The problem you encountered is due to the fact that the stabilizers of the rubber particles are being "robbed" by the filler.

As a general rule, the level of the stabilizer (i.e.surfactant) added should be proportional to the quantity of filler added. Also, the level of stabilizer added in the form of a aqueous dispersion (or slurry) is lesser compared to the case when the filler is added as dry powder.

You should also take note that the lower the particle size of the filler, the higher is the level of the surfactant required.

Sometimes a blend of more than one surfactants works better than when only a single surfactant is used.

Saturday, June 13, 2015

Latex Thread Manufacturing - General Advise

Manufacturer: We are medium sized latex thread manufacturer just beginning production. We're still struggling to get optimization of the production process. A general comment from you would be highly appreciated.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): "A general comment" is far from adequate as the latex thread extrusion is a complex process.

Anyway, here's my general advise:

1) The particle size of your compounding chemicals should be free from coarse particles especially for thread of smaller diameters. It should be below 3 micron.

2) The latex compound must be well matured at room temperature for a number of days depending on your cure recipe. This must then be followed by high pressure homogenizing,  deaeration under vacuum and filtered before use.

3) Dry and cure at between 15 to 20 minutes at 125°C to 130°C. You can also try a shorter cure at higher temperature followed by post curing at lower temperature at about 70°C.

If you need my full report on the "Manufacturing of Latex Thread", please let me know. 

Saturday, May 23, 2015

Transparent Rubber Shoe Soles

Manufacturer: We are manufacturer of rubber parts for the construction of shoes. Our latest project is to develop a suitable compound for transparent rubber shoe sole based on natural rubber with good abrasion resistance. I understand from others in the rubber industry that you could help us in terms of choice of rubber and additives.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): You should start with pale crepe as your base rubber. To have reasonable abrasion resistance, a good choice of filler is precipitated silica since you cannot use carbon black. For better processibility and molding in terms of rheology, magnesium carbonate could help. Light coloured mineral oil would also improve the transparency.

Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Rough Surface of Extruded Staioners' Rubber Bands

Manufacturer: We are manufacturing stationers' rubber bands using dry rubber extrusion process but have been experiencing undesirable surface roughness persistently. All attempts in reformulation and process changes are to no avail. Hope you can help us. We've sent you our formulations.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Thanks for sending me your formulations which helped me in my diagnosis of your problem.

You can easily overcome the problem by either switching your SMR to SP 20 of blending both.
SP means "Superior Processing Rubber" made form mixing vulcansied latex with normal latex at different ratios before the latex blend is coagulated to obtain the dry rubber. It has superior processing characteristics and good dimension stability which are ideal for calendering and extrusion processes. The extrudates would also show a smoother surface.

SP 20 indicates that 20% of the latex blend is vulcanised latex.

Poor Flocking Quality of Household Gloves

Manufacturer: We are household gloves manufacturers. We are struggling with the quality of our flocke-lined gloves due to poor flock pick-up.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Your latex formulation for the adhesive layer should be designed to ensure the latex does not flow excessively and also there is a good latex-pick up to receive the flocks and hence the addition of a thickener is necessary. Also your surfactant system much be designed to ensure that there is no premature gelation of the latex otherwise the adhesion of the flocks to the latex is poor.

Friday, May 08, 2015

Governments to Construct Rubberised Roads

KUALA LUMPUR: The Malaysian government, in a bid to shore up natural rubber prices, will construct rubberised roads, says Plantation Industries and Commodities Minister Datuk Douglas Uggah Embas.

"We should increase the use of rubber and the government is targeting to utilise 10 per cent of total rubber production this year," he said, adding that Indonesia and Thailand have also agreed to do the same..........CLICK HERE to read the whole article.

Saturday, April 25, 2015

Other Roles Played by the Detack Powder in Coagulant

Manufacturer: We are gloves manufacturer. What other role is the detack powder playing beside reducing the tackiness of the rubber film? We found that when we eliminate the powder in the coagulant, we observed poorer film formation and uneven thickness.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Powder in the coagulant dip tank could help to minimize the the coagulant flow on the former which might result in thin patches. This is because as the water evaporates, the powder increases the viscosity of the coagulant on the former. The powder also causes the surface of the former to have a degree of roughness which in turns would also slow down the flow of the coagulant.

Other means of controlling the coagulant flow without using the detack powder have been sent to you separately as per your request. 

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

How to Achieve Maximum Transparency in Latex Coagulant Dipped Products

Manufacturer: We are manufacturing a wide range of latex dipped products using the coagulant dipping process with calcium nitrate. In one or two of our product range, we need to achieve maximum transparency in the final products. We have minimized or eliminated ZnO in our formulations but the degree of transparency still leaves something to be desired. Our prcess does not allow for straight dipping without coagulant.

We hope you could help us after viewing and studying our compound formulations.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Your formulations need some adjustment. Your choice of accelerators is wrong because different accelerates would have different solubility in the rubber and hence would affect the transparency of the rubber products. Three improved formulations which you can use have been sent to you separately.

You might also have to consider changing your coagulant because calcium nitrate would form rubber-insoluble salts/soaps and hence would reduce the transparency. One possible alternative is CHA (Cyclohexylammonium acetate) the by-products of which are more rubber soluble.

Friday, March 20, 2015

Successful Manufacture of Fabric-Lined Gloves

Manufacturer: We are manufacturing industrial supported gloves. Please explain the importance of coagulant and latex stability to ensure good quality gloves.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): The strength of the coagulant (e.g. calcium nitrate) should be adjusted so that it is sufficiently strong to ensure adequate latex pick-up but not too strong that it prevents the penetration of the coagulant into the fabric otherwise the rubber to fabric adhesion would be poor.

The latex stability must be adjusted so as not to penetrate the fabric liner right through (i.e. strike through).

My detailed report on "Successful Manufacture of Fabric-Lined Gloves" has been sent to you separately.

Sunday, February 22, 2015

Alcohol-Based Coagulant Vs Water-Based Coagulant

Manufacturer: While most of the latex dipped products manufacturers today are now using water-based coagulant, we observe that some are still using alcohol-based coagulant despite the higher cost, health and fire hazards. Do you know why?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): While the alcohol-based coagulant have the disadvantages you mentioned, it has the advantages of better flow control and faster evaporation. As a result, coagulant drainage problem can be minimised and more even deposit on the former attained.

Compared with water-based coagulant, it is also more effective in covering uniformly uneven former surfaces such as finger crotches and textured patterns.  

Former Cleaning with Hard Water

Manufacturer: We are glove manufacturers. We have heard that some of our competitors are using softened water for their former washing. What's the danger of using hard water?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant):

In some countries it is extremely important that after the online washing process, the formers are thoroughly rinsed with softened water. This is because the hardness of the water would deposit traces of inorganic salts on the former surface leading to potential formation of pinholes in the rubber film.

Monday, January 26, 2015

Why Is It Important to Remove Coagulant from Rubber Film by Leaching ?

Manufacturer: We are manufacturing toy balloons but without leaching. Why is it important to remove the coagulant from the rubber film by leaching ?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): If the coagulant salt such as calciuum nitrate is allowed to remain in the rubber film, the film would tend to discolour when exposed to warm air, gas fumes and UV light. The physical properties would also be negatively affected due to poor particle-to-particle integration during drying.

I strongly advise you to install a leaching process in your Production as this would also improve the brilliance of the colour and gloss of your inflated balloons.

Factors Affecting Thickness of Latex Dipped Products

Manufacturer:  I am wondering if you can explain the factors that affect thickness and surface finish of dipped latex articles such as gloves. How can thickness be predicted from material properties?

I imagine factors might include:
- Temperature of latex solution
- Temperature of former
- Airflow for drying
- Concentration of water in latex solution
- Type/concentration of of thickening agent
- Type/use of coagulating agent on former

What affects the outside surface finish, to make it really mirror-smooth or relatively rough?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant):  Thickness of latex dipped products depends generally on the following factors:

1) Latex stability against cationic chemicals such as calcium nitrate. The higher the stability, the thinner is the latex gel picked up. The reverse is true. Types of surfactants used is important. Nonionic surfactants as opposed to anionic surfactants would tend to increase the latex stability against calcium nitrate.

2) The age of latex. I'm referring to natural rubber latex. The older the latex the thicker would be the latex dipped product.

3) The higher the former temperature, the thicker would be the product especially when the latex compound is sensitive to heat.
(Latex compounds are normally more heat sensitive when the ZnO and ammonia level are high)

4) The higher the latex solid content (i.e. TSC) the higher would be thickness.

5) The higher the concentration of the coagulant (e.g. calcium nitrate), the higher would be the thickness.

6) If the viscosity of the latex compound is increased by adding a thickener, the product would be thicker.

7) The longer the latex dwell time i.e. the time the former with a coating of coagulant remains immersed in the latex, the thicker would be the product.

To make the surface smooth and shiny, include an extra final dip into a much more diluted latex compound.

To make the surface matt i.e. no more shine and gloss, soak the product in chlorine solution (with about 800 to 1000 ppm of chlorine). The surface after this treatment would appear rough under microscope but not the naked eyes.

Sunday, December 28, 2014

Wet Tack and Dry Tack of Latex Based Adhesives

Manufacturer: I am new to latex based adhesive technology. Please exlain the difference between wet and dry tack and how to improve them.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): "Wet tack" is the ability of the latex to hold to layers of materials together before drying. This depends a lot on the nature of the substrates concerned.  A solid impermeable substrate is more difficult to adhere to compared with, for examples, a porous textile or paper board.

Other factors involved in ensuring good wet tack are:

1) Surface tension and wetting - A good wetting with low surface tension is required for the initial spreading and wetting of the substrates.
2) Total solid content - Higher TSC is required for higher initial tack.
3) Mechanical stability - Lower mechanical stability is needed for the quick development of the wet tack.
4) Types of stabilizers used - rosin acid soaps are preferred to fatty acid and non-ionic soaps.
5) Nature of polymer - Lower Tg is preferred to ensure the polymer is soft enough for better particle-to-particle integration and  film formation.

As for "dry tack", I have already covered this in my earlier posting om "Nitrile Latex Adhesives" below.

Friday, December 19, 2014

Nitrile Latex Adhesives

Manufacturer: We are in the process of developing a water-based adhesive based on Nitrile latex. Please let us know the potential areas of application and what one needs to consider in order to make this project a success. Thank you in advance.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): While Nitrile latex has good resistance to non-polar oils its polar nature gives good affinity to polar substrate such as PVC. You should therefore look into the market of PVC floor tiles where Nitrile based adhesive should be the preferred material. It could also be used for paper, boards, fabrics, wood and metal foils.

However, unlike other latices such as natural rubber and polychloroprene, Nitrile latex has low inherent tack (i.e. dry tack). Therefore the addition of a suitable tackifier is recommended. Examples of such tackifier are coumarone indene resins, hydrogenated esters and terpene resins.

However, too much tackiness obtained by the addition of the tackifiers would lead to a drop in the cohesion strength and toughness of the dry adhesive. Hence a balance should be reached between the two  extremes.

You could also look into the addition of reinforcing agents such as phenolics, terpene-phenolics resins.

Saturday, December 13, 2014

JW Latex Consultants would like to wish our Customers, Clients, Students, Associates and Friends "A Very Merry Christmas!"

Sunday, November 23, 2014

HLB (Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance) of Surfactants

Manufacturer: We are latex glove  manufacturer. Further to your various postings on surfactants, can you please briefly explain the meaning of "HLB' and give examples of its uses.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): HLB stands for Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance. It is related to the proportion of hydrophilic (i.e. water loving) and lipophilic (i.e. oil loving) groups in the molecule of the surfactant.

It allows one to predict the surfactant properties and is based on a scale from zero to 20 with HLB of below 10 indicating low water solubility while HLB of above 10 indicating high water solubility.

The following are examples of HLB and areas of applications:


W/O (Water in Oil) emulsifiers
Wetting agents
O/W (Oil in Water) emulsifiers

Hence the surfactants that concern you are those with HLB of around 3 which is the anti-foaming and anti-webbing agents and HLB of about 7-9 which are the wetting agents which you can use in the coagulant.

Thursday, November 06, 2014

Skin Irritaion caused by Nitrile Gloves

Manufacturer: We are manufacturing industrial gloves using carboxylated NBR (Nitrile) latex. Lately we've been receiving complaints from the market about our gloves having skin irritation problems among users. Our extensive investigation revealed that our proprietary curatives used especially the accelerators are not the causes.

What else in the NBR latex do you think could have caused the skin irritation problem?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): It is well known that some surfactants could cause skin problems to some individuals on prolonged use. Therefore if your gloves are not sufficiently leached, the surfactants inherently present in the base latex could cause skin irritation to some users of the gloves especially when their hands sweat. Usually these users find gloves made from synthetic latices to be more troublesome than those made from NR latex since a comparatively higher level of surfactants is required for emulsion polymerization.

Sodium alkyl sulphate is particularly bad for skin.

Some chain-stopper used in polymerization which is of the dithiocarbamate type could also be another possible causative agent.

It has been reported that the carboxylic acids used for carboxylation such as Methacrylic acid/MAA could affect skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Again, proper leaching is required to remove the residual MAA.

Friday, October 24, 2014

KOH Number and Ammonia Content of Natural Rubber Latex

Manufacturer: What does KOH number measure? Does it have any relationship with ammonia content? How can I determine whether the alkalinity is due to the presence of KOH or ammonia?
John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): KOH Number does not measure the amount of ammonia. It measures total the combination of VFA (Volatile Fatty Acids), higher fatty acid anions and amino acids.

The older the latex the higher would  be the KOH Number. 

As for ammonia content, you need to determine the "Alkalinity" of the latex by titration or indirectly measure the pH although the latter might not be accurate at times due to the buffering effect of the naturally occurring non-rubbers.

If you suspect there is KOH in the latex, you have to drive off the ammonia first by warming the latex with stirring before measuring the alkalinity.

Thursday, October 02, 2014

Blue Gloves Turning Green

Manufacturer: When gloves are dipped in slip-coating (silicone/PUD blend), the glove has a green stain. Gloves should normally be blue. When gloves are not dipped in slipcoating, they are perfectly fine.  No green stain. Sometimes, the slip coating does not make the gloves have a green stain, and sometimes it does.

Any thoughts?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Under normal circumstances, both silicone and PU dispersions on their own should not affect the colour of the gloves. I therefore suspect other ingredients or additives (or contamination) in either silicone or PU that are the causatives agents for the change of color from blue to green.

Knowing that blue color if mixed with yellow color would give green color, I suspect the "contamination" to be either the free ions from copper or iron.

Both copper and iron ions would react with the commonly used accelerators such as the dithiocarbamates to form a metallic complex which is colored yellowish to brownish, which would in turn converts the blue color of the gloves to greenish.

To confirm this, I suggest you treat an uncompounded nitrile film (i.e. with no curatives added) with the silicone/PU coating and check the color change, if any.


Thursday, September 11, 2014

"Clastogenicity", "Mutagenicity" and "Teratogenicity" of Rubber Chemicals

Manufacturer: When reading about the toxicity of rubber chemicals, I always come across the terms, "Clastogenicity", "Mutagenicity" and "Teratogenicity". What are they?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): This question had been raised a number of times before in this "forum". Please see below:

1) Clastogenicity - "Clastogen" refers to a general class of chemicals which produce changes or alterations in the cell chromosomes.

2) Mutagenicity - "Mutagens" refer to those chemicals which tend to induce changes in the genetic materials carried by both the male and female reproductive cells. Please take note that mutagenic chemicals are also carcinogens. Hence some cancer tests are actually tests of the mutagenicity potential. 

3) Teratogenicity - "Teratogens" are chemicals which interfere with the normal development of the foetus during pregnancy and hence leading to malformation of the baby.

Change in DRC of Natural Rubber Latex Concentrate on Storage

Manufacturer: Why do we see a drop in DRC (Dry Rubber Content) when we test the latex concentrate after storage for some time?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Good question. DRC is actually not 100% rubber. It also contains naturally occurring non-rubbers which undergo continuous chemical breakdown through, for instance, hydrolysis. Overtime, these non-rubbers on the rubber particles would be lost and hence a lower DRC would be encountered. It has been reported that as much as 0.45% would be lost after about 12 months' storage.


What has the bouncing ball to do with tyres?

Latex Gloves Educational Articles from the Malaysian Rubber Export Promotion Council

How do you select your medical gloves?

Rubber Chemicals: Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, Clastogenicity.

Why is Compression Set measurement important?

Assessment of Latex Stability

Joule Effect

Poor Flocking Quality Of Household Gloves

Creaming of Latex

What is Vulcanization?

History of Latex Dipped Products

Applications of Prevulcanized Latex

Defoamer Creating Havoc in Glove Factory

Problems With Milling Rubber Chemicals

Medical Gloves From Guayule Latex

Introduction to SMG Gloves



Click on The Following Links to Read More Articles:

[Advantages of Vulcanization] [Applications of PV Latex] [Bacteria and Latex] [Chemical Toxicity] [Cross-Linking Density] [Biodegradability] [Black Articles] [Blooming] [Bouncing Ball] [Compression Set] [Condoms] [Creaming] [Defoamer] [FDA] [Fatty Acid Soaps] [Flame Retardant] [Flocking] [Food Packaging] [Glove Demand] [Glove Selection] [Guayule Latex] [History of Gloves] [Joul Effect] [Latex Stability] [Latex Thread] [Milling Problem] [MREPC Articles] [Nano Polymer Particles] [Nano ZnO] [Polychloroprene] [REACH] [SMG] [Storage Hardening] [Vulcanization] [Vytex] [Yulex]

The information and data contained in this site are believed to be accurate and reliable. However it is the responsibility of the visitors and readers to satisfy themselves that the information is workable under their own processing conditions. Hence the owners of this site make no warranties concerning the suitability of the information given in this site.