JW Latex Consultants (and Rubber Consultants,乳胶顾问) offer solutions to your problems in Natural Rubber latex and Synthetic Rubber latex processing and the manufacturing of latex products (condoms, catheters, medical gloves, baby teats and soothers, toy balloons etc) Quick answers through e-mails are possible at reasonable cost.



[Advantages of Prevulcanization] [Air Permeability] [Applications of PV Latex] [Bacteria and Latex] [Chemical Toxicity] [Cross-Linking Density] [Biodegradability] [Black Articles] [Blooming] [Bouncing Ball] [Compression Set] [Condoms] [Copper Staining] [Creaming] [Defoamer] [FDA] [Fatty Acid Soaps] [Flame Retardant] [Flocking] [Food Packaging] [Glove Demand] [Glove Discoloration] [Glove Selection] [Guayule Latex] [History of Gloves] [Joul Effect] [Lab Equipment] [“Latex” Definition] [Natural Rubber Latex Stability] [Natural Rubber Latex Thread] [Milling Problem] [Mixing Equipment Directory] [MREPC Articles] [Nano Polymer Particles] [Nano ZnO] [Permanent Set] [Polychloroprene] [REACH] [SMG] [Storage Hardening] [Stress Relaxation] [Surfactants Directory] [Tensile Properties] [Vulcanization] [Vytex] [Yulex]


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Wednesday, October 18, 2017

What Happens to TMTD in LATZ Latex Concentrate?

Manufacturer: One of our customers is concerned about TMTD (Tetramethylthiuram Disulphide) used in the production of LATZ low-ammonia centrifuged latex concentrate and requested that we monitor the presence of TMTD in the latex. However, from our analysis we observed a declining of the level of TMTD with storage time. Some batches even show negligible level. Please explain why.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): LATZ is preserved with low ammonia at 0.3% with secondary preservatives in the form of TMTD and ZnO at 0.025% each.

TMTD at this level is considered to be low when compared with TMTD used as an accelerator (at up to 1.0%) for vulcanization. Malaysian Rubber Products Research Association in the UK had done some work in the past and found that TMTD in LATZ gradually (over time) breaks down into ZDMC (Zinc Dimethyl Dithiocarbamate) and other sulphur-containing compounds.

One interesting finding was the fact that the preservation of the latex  was not affected with the "loss" of TMTD.

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Zinc Oxide Thickening of Natural Rubber Latex Compound

Manufacturer: We are manufacturers of latex dipped products such as gloves and frequently encounter latex stability problems such as increased viscosity in compounds having higher level of ZnO. Among other things, we intend to add non-ionic attractant to counter the thickening of the latex. What possible side effects do you think this strategy would give us?
John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): What you are encountering is what is commonly referred to as "Zinc Oxide Thickening". Non-ionic surfactants of the polyethylene oxide condensate type could help reduce the thickening. This is usually added in conjunction with KOH to maintain a high pH while the use of ammonia is restricted to minimize ammonium salt formation.

However, you must take note of the following negative side effects:

1) It would slow down gelling of latex and hence reducing latex pickup in coagulant dipping process.

2) It affects the gelling of latex extrudate for latex thread manufacturing and hence retarding the formation of solid filament.

3) Some non-ionic surfactants could reduce the mechanical stability of the latex resulting in the formation of coagulum.

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Breaking and Tearing of Condoms During Use

Manufacturer: We have a serious problem with our condom which is produced by our company. Our lines are from RT and we use PV latex. The problem is the broken and tearing condoms sometimes by our condom users through sexual process. I send you pictures and video for our condom. Please send us your comments and suggestion that how to solve our condom quality problem.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): From your photographs and the samples you sent me, the defects of the condoms could very likely be due to the presence of micro-air bubbles, foreign particles and unknown contamination of the latex. Care should be taken to minimize the formation of air bubbles during the transferring and mixing of the latex. Any air bubbles present should be eliminated before dipping. Ensure that the film of the rubber is at its maximum physical strength by the various stages of the dipping process.

Ensure that all particles of chemicals used in the latex compound are well milled and dispersed. Introduce some Q/C tests to detect possible contamination of the latex which can occur either at your factory or your supplier's factory.

Also, although prevulcanised latex (PV) is being used, sometimes the cure state of the PV can still advance on storage. Therefore it is advisable that you measure the cure state during the cause of the storage and processing of the PV.

Saturday, August 05, 2017

The Meaning of "Creep" of Rubber Products

Manufacturer: We just received a complaint from one of our customers stating that one of our rubber products has shown excessive "creep" property. What is this? We would appreciate your usual good explanation.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Very simple. "Creep" has a lot to do with "Stress Relaxation". Most people are familiar with the latter but not the former.

Stress relaxation of a vulcanised rubber refers to the loss in stress when the rubber is held at constant strain (e.g. at a given elongation), over a period of time. Closely related to stress relaxation is "Strain Relaxation".

Strain relaxation of a rubber product refers to the gradual increase in deformation (e.g. elongation) under constant load, over a period of time.

"Creep" is another term for "Strain Relaxation". I suggest you review your curative recipe and try to use an EV (efficient vulcanisation) system as far as possible.

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Choice of Coagulant for Maximum Transaprency in Latex Dipped Products

Manufacturer: With your help, we have managed to modify our latex compound formulations to achieve transparency of our latex dipped products with some success. However, we were informed that the choice of the types of coagulant is also important. We found straight dipping gave the best result but once we used calcium nitrate or calcium chloride, the unwanted opacity increases. Can you please explain?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): I had explained about the choice of coagulant for maximum transparency in latex dipped products earlier in this blog.

The reason why you could not get good transparency when using calcium nitrate or chloride is that the resultant calcium soaps after coagulation are not soluble in the rubber. Also, the calcium soaps are not soluble in water and hence leaching would not help in improving the transparency significantly.

The best coagulant to be used for maximum transparency is CHA i.e. Cyclohexylamine Acetate (or Cyclohexylammonium Acetate). This is because while the cyclohexylamine itself is volatile, the resultant cyclohexylamine soaps are soluble in rubber.

One disadvantage of CHA is that it is a weaker coagulant compared to the calcium salts.

I'm happy to note that my report on latex compound formulation design for transparency had been useful to you.

Friday, June 09, 2017

Aqueous Dispersions of Rubber Chemicals

Manufacturer: We are encountering poor dispersion of rubber chemicals such as sulphur, accelerators and antioxidants used for latex compounding. This has resulted in sedimentation to the extent of forming hard cakes that are difficult to be re-dispersed. We would appreciate very much if you could give us some guidance to overcome this problem.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): Achievement of a well milled and well dispersed rubber chemical in water entails a lot of details which cannot be sufficiently covered in this forum. If you want, I can prepare a comprehensive report for you.

However, in the mean time, you should pay close attention on all factors that allow you to achieve the following:

  • Wetting of Chemical Particles: All the air from the particle surface and between the particles of the aggregates and agglomerates must first be replaced by the solution of a dispersing agent or agents. The particle/gaseous interface should then be transformed into a solid/liquid interface.
  • Milling or Grinding and Separation: The composite from above mentioned step is then subjected to mechanical energy via impact and shear forces. As a result, the agglomerates are broken up  into smaller units and evenly dispersed.
  • Stabilization of the Chemicals Particles in Suspension: The chemical dispersion is stabilized by dispersing agents via the adsorption of molecules of these dispersing agents (usually some surfactants) at the chemical particle surface. This prevents or minimizes sedimentation and phase-separation.  
Let me know if you require a more comprehensive report with recommended recipes for the dispersion of each chemical you are using.

Monday, May 22, 2017

Oldest Rubber Trees in Malaysia

The oldest rubber tree of Kuala Kangsar in the state of Perak, Malaysia, is also one of the two oldest rubber trees still standing in Malaysia.. It stands by the roadside in front of the district office in Kuala Kangsar.  It was planted when the country was still called British Malaya.

It is one of nine seedlings brought over from Brazil by the English botanist H.N. Ridley (from Kew Garden, London) in 1877, about 140 years ago!

Saturday, May 06, 2017

Foaming Agents for Gel and Non-Gel Foamed Backed Products

Manufacturer: We are manufacturing products backed and coated with natural rubber latex foam using both "Gel foam" and "Non-Gel foam" systems. What foaming agents do you recommend?

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): For gelled foam based on either zinc/ammonia complex or zinc/sodium silicofluoride, you can use fatty acid soaps one good example of which is potassium oleate. You can either buy the ready made soap or make your own by reacting oleic acid with potassium hydroxide. Other possible soaps are caster oil soap and rosinates.

For non-gel foam, it is best to use anionic and non-ionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulphates, sulphonates and non-ionic polyethylene oxide condensates. Do not use non-ionic foaming agents for "gel foam" as these would retard the gelling of latex.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Evaporated Natural Rubber Latex Concentrates Now Available from a Thailand Manufacturer


Evaporated Natural Rubber Latex Concentrates Now Available from a Thailand Manufacturer

Evaporated latex concentrates have an intrinsic property of much higher total solid content (TSC) of up to 75% compared with up to only 62% of centrifuged latex concentrates while still retaining all the inherent small rubber particles and non-rubbers........
CLICK HERE for details

Monday, April 10, 2017

Demoulding Problem of Latex Foam Products

Manufacturer: We are latex foam products manufacturers. Recently we have been having problems of demoulding of our products from the molds resulting in high rejection due to tearing. Your advice would be appreciated.

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): All products made from rubbers or elastomers with some forms of moulding should be able to be removed from the moulds easily at the end of each cycle of moulding without undue stress being applied to the products. Your encounter of the demoulding problem could be due to poor cleaning process for the moulds and/or wrong choice of releasing agents.

I suggest you introduce a proper cleaning process to ensure that all surfaces of the moulds are free from the cumulative build-up of non-rubbers from the latex and compounding ingredients.

As for the releasing agents, you can try aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or it's derivatives and low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycols. You can use either of these or a blend of both. This is best applied by spraying while the moulds are still hot.

Monday, March 27, 2017

JW Latex Consultant's New Website Launched!

We are very pleased to announce the launching of our brand new website at https://slwoon2.wixsite.com/johnwoon 

You are welcome to check it out!

Monday, March 20, 2017

Why Does Dilution of Natural Rubber Latex Cause Latex Detabilisation?

Manufacturer: We always encounter coagulum problem when we dilute our NR latex compounds with water. Why is this so? Please help!

John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): If your latex compounds are well stabilised with sufficient soaps/stabilisers, dilution with water generally would improve the latex stability.

I believe your latex compounds are not properly stabilised and when water is added, the concentration of stabilisers present in the water phase is reduced, hence a reduction of latex stability leading to the formation of coagulum.

What you can do is to add some stabiliser (similar to that used in the latex) to the water before dilution.

Sunday, March 05, 2017

Second Edition of "Practical Latex Technology" Launched!

JW Latex Consultants are pleased to announce the launch of our Second Edition of the 159-paged Ebook, "Practical Latex Technology" with more additions of Q&A.

It contains answers to more than 150 questions plus other very useful tips and ideas!

For easy of reference, it is divided into 5 Parts:

Part 1: Vulcanisation
(Vulcanization), Vulcanisation of Latex and Prevulcanised Latex
Part 2: Properties of Rubber
and Latex
Part 3: Problems of Latex
Processing and Finished Products
Part 4: Compounding Ingredients
and Processing Aids
Part 5: Miscellaneous Subjects

Get your copy for a one-time investment of only $85.00!


Practical Latex Technology - 2nd Edition

Please contact john@jwlatexconsultants.com and woonsungliang@yahoo.com.sg if you have problem in downloading the ebook.

Sunday, February 12, 2017

Thickeners for Natural Rubber Latex and Nitrile Latex

Manufacturer: We are manufacturing latex dipped products based on both Natural Rubber latex and NBR (Nitrile) latex. Please advise us on the types of thickeners we can use.
John Woon (Senior Latex Consultant): You can try the following:

1) Natural Colloids
Examples for theses are casein and alginate. Ammonium casienate (10% solution of casein in ammonium hydroxide) and sodium alginate (5 - 8% solution) have been used successfully in the industry. However, these are prone to bacterial attack. I suggest you add some bactericide.

2) Celluloses
Widely used cellulose types of thickeners include methyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and sodium carboxyl methy cellolose and their derivatives with chemical modifications. All are used at a concentration of 4 to 6%. They are available in different molecular weights giving different viscosity accordingly.

3) Polyacrylates
Examples are ammonium polyacrylate, sodium polyacrylate and polyacylate acid emulsion. When using the acid emulsion care must be taken to prevent possible flocculation of latex.

4) Water-soluble polyurethane 
This is an alkyl phenol ethoxylates associative polyurethane thickener widely used in the coating industry.

Monday, January 23, 2017

Happy Chinese New Year!

Chinese New Year, also known as Spring Festival in China, is the most important traditional holiday for all Chinese. Chinese New Year 2017 is on Saturday, January 28th, 2017 i.e. the first day of the Chinese lunar calendar.

 Mr. John Woon of JW atex Consultants would like to send his visitors a beautiful Chinese New Year Card. Please view the card in the following link:



What has the bouncing ball to do with tyres?

Latex Gloves Educational Articles from the Malaysian Rubber Export Promotion Council

How do you select your medical gloves?

Rubber Chemicals: Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, Clastogenicity.

Why is Compression Set measurement important?

Assessment of Latex Stability

Joule Effect

Poor Flocking Quality Of Household Gloves

Creaming of Latex

What is Vulcanization?

History of Latex Dipped Products

Applications of Prevulcanized Latex

Defoamer Creating Havoc in Glove Factory

Problems With Milling Rubber Chemicals

Medical Gloves From Guayule Latex

Introduction to SMG Gloves



Click on The Following Links to Read More Articles:

[Advantages of Vulcanization] [Applications of PV Latex] [Bacteria and Latex] [Chemical Toxicity] [Cross-Linking Density] [Biodegradability] [Black Articles] [Blooming] [Bouncing Ball] [Compression Set] [Condoms] [Creaming] [Defoamer] [FDA] [Fatty Acid Soaps] [Flame Retardant] [Flocking] [Food Packaging] [Glove Demand] [Glove Selection] [Guayule Latex] [History of Gloves] [Joul Effect] [Latex Stability] [Latex Thread] [Milling Problem] [MREPC Articles] [Nano Polymer Particles] [Nano ZnO] [Polychloroprene] [REACH] [SMG] [Storage Hardening] [Vulcanization] [Vytex] [Yulex]

The information and data contained in this site are believed to be accurate and reliable. However it is the responsibility of the visitors and readers to satisfy themselves that the information is workable under their own processing conditions. Hence the owners of this site make no warranties concerning the suitability of the information given in this site.